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Meaning of intransitive adpositions
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Particles with an external argument have a meaning of their own. Particles without an external argument have their meaning to some extent determined by the verb which selects them.

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Particles with an external argument can be the predicate of a predication mediated by a copula, as shown below:

Example 1

a. De boffert is [hielendal] op
the cake is completely up
The cake is completely finished
b. Jouke is ûnder
Jouke is downstairs
Jouke is downstairs

Particles without an external argument have their meaning to some extent determined by the verb:

Example 2

a. Margriet belle him op
Margriet phoned him up
Margriet phoned him up
b. Margriet belle him ôf
Margriet phoned him down
Margriet phoned to cancel an appointment with him

In such cases, the particle may still contribute to the verbal aspect. The following contrast shows that the particle is incompatible with atelic or non-resultative aspect:

Example 3

a. Margriet belle oeren lang
Margriet phoned hours long
Margriet phoned for hours
b. *Margriet belle oeren lang op
Margriet phoned hours long
Margriet phoned up for hours
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