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Clause adverbs
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Clause adverbs can be used in the syntactic frame that is given below, accompanied by an example.

Syntactic frame: Dit isit is ADVERB datthat CLAUSE.

Example:

Example 1

Gelukkig het ons onthou.
fortunate have we remembered
Fortunately we remembered.
Example 2

Dit is gelukkig so dat ons onthou het.
it is fortunate so that we remembereed
It is fortunately so that we remembered.

VP adverbs fail this test, as shown below:

Example 3

Ons het betyds onthou.
we have remembered in time
We remembered in time.
Example 4

*Dit is betyds so dat ons onthou het.
it is in.time so that we remembered have
It is in time so that we remembered.

Five types of clause adverbs can be semantically distinguished, as below. The syntactic position of the various adverbs when occurring together in a sentence follows a certain pattern, corresponding more or less to the sequence as indicated below:

  1. Modal blykbaarapparently
  2. Subjective gelukkigfortunately
  3. Frequency altydalways
  4. Time gisteryesterday
  5. Emphasis werklikreally

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A Modal adverbs

Modal clause adverbs express modalities such as necessity, possibility, probability, certainty, etc.


Table 1
blykbaarapparently
beslisdefinitely
miskienmaybe
dalkpossibly
natuurlikof course, naturally
waarskynlikprobably
klaarblyklikevidently

In some cases, there are semantic equivalents belonging to a different syntactic category. Thus, the adjectival adverb klaarblyklikevidently is roughly equivalent to the PP voor die hand liggendobviously. At the same time, some modal adverbs also function as adjectives, such as beslisdefinite, natuurliknatural and waarskynlikprobable. Here are some examples of adverbial use:

Example 5

Miskien gaan dit duur·der kos.
maybe goes it expensive·CMPR cost
Maybe it will become more expensive.
Example 6

Dit is klaarblyklik baie ingewikkeld.
It is evidently very complicated.

B Subjective adverbs

Subjective clause adverbs express the speaker's subjective emotion or evaluation concerning the denotation of the clause, such as hope or happiness. They include the following:


Table 2
gelukkigfortunately
ongelukkigunfortunately
hopelikhopefully

While the last example, hopelikhopefully can only operate as a subjective adverb, the first two, which can also be used as adjectives, differ not only syntactically from the adjective counterparts, but also semantically. If used as adjectives or VP adverbs, gelukkig and ongelukkig can also mean happy or happily and unhappy and unhappily, respectively. The threefold applications are illustrated below:

Example 7

Hulle het gelukkig net betyds opgedaag.
they have fortunately just in.time arrived
Fortunately, they arrived just in time.
Example 8

My jare in die Kaap was baie gelukkig.
My years in the Cape were very happy.
Example 9

Hulle het lank gelukkig saamgewoon.
they have long happily lived.together
They lived happily together for a long time.

C Frequency adverbs

Frequency adverbs provide information about the frequency of occurrence of events, and are distinguished from time adverbs, which indicate duration or point of time. Examples of frequency adverbs incluce weekliksweekly and jaarliksannually:

Example 10

Die kabinetsvergadering vind weekliks plaas.
the cabinet.meeting takes weekly place
The cabinet meeting takes place weekly.
Example 11

Die wingerde word jaarliks gesnoei.
the vineyards be.AUX.PASS.PRS annually pruned
The vineyards are pruned annually.

Frequency adverbs are often NPs rather than APs, such as below. This type of frequency expression is built on the quantifier elkeevery:

Example 12

'n Kanonskoot word elke middag om twaalfuur afgeskiet.
a cannon.shot be.AUX.PASS.PRS every midday at twelve.o'clock down.shot
A cannon shot is fired every day at noon.

In addition, PPs are often used, especially in idiomatic expressions, to express similar content as adverbs, for example


Table 3
al om die hawerklaptime and again
met elke nuwemaanwith every new moon

Some more frequency adverbs include the following:

Table 4
heeltydcontinually, all the time
dikwelsoften
soms, somtydssometimes
meestalmostly
gereeldregularly
selderarely
eenkeeronce

D Time adverbs

Time adverbs provide information about the time at which an event occurred.

Time adverbs include the following:

Table 5
nounow
toethen
vandagtoday
deesdaetoday the day > in these days
môretomorrow
gisteryesterday
alalready
vroeërin the past, earlier, previously
uiteindelikeventually
oplaasfinally
destydsin the past, formerly
netjust
laas, onlangslately, recently
laterlater
sedertdiensince
gousoon
nogstill
nogyet

E Emphasis

Adverbs of emphasis add emotional emphasis to the utterance, and include examples such as


Table 6
regtigreally
absoluutabsolutely
veralespecially
spesifiekspecifically

As in the case of frequency adverbs, PPs such as in die besonderin particularalso occur to provide emphasis to clauses, as in

Example 13

Ons verwelkom in die besonder die besoekers uit die buiteland.
we welcome in the particular the visitors out.of the foreign.country
We welcome in particular the visitors from abroad.
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