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-ommen
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The suffix -ommen derives adjectives from affective nouns (keardelbig fellow > keardelommenlike a big fellow), adjectives (bloedichbloody > bloedichommenvery heavy) and interjections (blinder!devils! > blinderommenextraordinary).

The suffix mostly adds an even higher degree to what is expressed by the base. -ommen is an unproductive suffix, and is not used anymore in daily speech.

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[+] Noun as base

Sometimes, the derivation with -ommen[omm̩] has the meaning "such as {noun}", but mostly one feels that the affective meaning of the base is even strengthened. Examples are given in (a) of (1) and (2) below. Instead of this suffix, the preposition phrase fan in Nof a N can be used, which is shown in the (b)-examples. See for this construction in the syntactic part. There is no strong meaning difference between these two possibilities.

Example 1

a. In keardelommen snoek
a big.fellow-SUFFpike
A very big pike
b. In keardel fan in snoek
a big.fellow of a pike
A very big pike
Example 2

a. In baasommen swimmer
a boss-SUFF swimmer
An excellent swimmer
b. In baas fan in swimmer
a boss of a swimmer
An excellent swimmer

Derivations with -ommen often only have a strengthening meaning, for example in merakela miracle > in merakelommen willevery much fun, in honta big fellow > in hontommen ein rinnena very long walk and in duvela devil > in duvelommen pinevery much pain.

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x Origin of the suffix

Sipma (1949:58-59) argues that -ommen derivations are developed from comparable constructions as the one mentioned in (a') and (b') above, but then with the preposition omof instead of fanof. Thus a construction like in keardel om in snoeka big.fellow of a pikea very big pike would have become in keardelommen snoeka big.fellow-SUFF pikea very big pike.

Sytstra and Hof (1925:93) argue that the interjection duvelom!cursed!, forms the model pattern for all other -ommen derivations. It should then be extended with the emphatic suffix -en and, as a result, have been used adjectivally (duvelommenvery much).

[+] Adjective as base

Examples of derivations with -ommen from an adjective are bloedichbloody > bloedichommenvery heavy, gloeiendglowing > gloeiendommenred-hot and merakelspecial > merakelommenextraordinary.

[+] Interjection as base

An example of a derivation with -ommen from an interjection is blinder!devils! > blinderommenextraordinary.

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x Literature

This article is based on Hoekstra (1998:139-140). More details can be found in Sipma (1949:58-59) and Sytstra and Hof (1925:93).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Sipma, Pieter1949Ta it Frysk IIR. van der Velde, Ljouwert
  • Sipma, Pieter1949Ta it Frysk IIR. van der Velde, Ljouwert
  • Sytstra, Onno H. & Hof, Jan J1925Nieuwe Friesche SpraakkunstLeeuwardenR. van der Velde
  • Sytstra, Onno H. & Hof, Jan J1925Nieuwe Friesche SpraakkunstLeeuwardenR. van der Velde
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