• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-waarts
quickinfo

The adverbial suffix –waarts/ʋarts/ is used to derive directional adverbs, mainly from nouns, as in huishome > huiswaartshomewards, noordnorth > noordwaartsnorthwards. It is the Dutch counterpart of the English suffix –ward. Some of these adverbs can also be used as adjectives: voorwaartse compatibiliteitforward compatibility.

readmore

The suffix -waarts is productive with base nouns denoting a location, in particular geographical nouns: schipship> schipwaartsto the ship, HeilooHeiloo (place name) > Heiloowaartsto Heiloo. The suffix can also combine with spatial prepositions as in opwaartsupward, voorwaartsforward, bergafwaartsberg-af-waartsmountain-down-warddown the mountain, landinwaartsland-in-waartsland-in-wardinto the land. It also occurs with other word classes, but this use is not productive: derwaartsthither, buitenwaartsoutward.

A number of adverbs with -waarts can be used as adjectives, as in neerwaartse spiraaldownward spiral or landinwaartse ligginginland situation.

-waarts forms a prosodic word of its own, and carries secondary stress, as in noordwaarts/ˈnordˌʋarts/northwards.

Further derivations from words ending in -waarts are rare; nominalizations such as opwaartsheidupwardness or neerwaartsheiddownwardness occur occasionally, but may not sound natural to all speakers.

For more information and discussion, see Diepeveen (2012, chapter 16,online version).

References:
  • Diepeveen, Ariane2012Modifying words. Dutch adverbial morphology in contrast.FU BerlinThesis
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • -technisch
    [74%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adverbs > Adverbial suffixes
  • -matig
    [74%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • -gewijs
    [73%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adverbs > Adverbial suffixes
  • Adjectival inflection
    [71%] Dutch > Morphology > Inflection
  • -iter
    [71%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adverbs > Adverbial suffixes
  • -sk
    [72%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Noun as base
  • -wei
    [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Adverb as base
  • -s
    [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Adverb as base
  • Cardinal numbers
    [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
  • Case
    [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Nouns
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Characteristics and classification
    [69%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases
  • Constructions with APs
    [69%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Characteristics and classification
  • Inflection and derivation
    [69%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
  • Root semantics
    [68%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
  • Mood
    [68%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
Show more ▼
cite
print